This study aims to determine the effects of a 3 month long, 500 kcal per day deficit dietary intervention, without exercise, on obesity and in decreasing serum endotoxin and lipemia markers in overweight and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) Saudi women. 92 Saudi women [18 non-diabetic (ND) (Age 24.4±7.9 yr; BMI 22.2±2.2 kg/m2), 24 overweight+ (age 32.0±7.8 yr; BMI 28.5±1.5 kg/m2) and 50 overweight or obese T2DM patients (age 41.5±6.2yr; BMI 35.2±7.7 kg/m2)], were introduced to a 500 kcal deficit/day diet. Caloric restriction resulted in significant improvements in BMI and hip circumference of both overweight+ (p<0.05) and T2DM (p<0.01) groups of Saudi females. T2DM group showed decreases in fasting glucose (p<0.05), triglycerides (p<0.05), total- (p<0.01) and LDL-cholesterol (p<0.01), while the HDL-cholesterol increased (p<0.01). In the overweight+ group, serum levels of total- (p<0.01) and LDL-cholesterol (p<0.01) decreased. Levels of fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and endotoxin did not change in either group. In conclusion, 3 months long 500 kcal deficit per day dietary intervention, without exercise, conferred improvements in markers of lipemia, but not in circulating endotoxin levels, in the overweight+ and T2DM groups of Saudi women and suggest a beneficial effect of calorie restriction alone on T2DM.
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