Objectives Prospective evaluation of Survivor Rate and Prevalence of Periimplantitis in 535 Astra Dentsply 4x6 mm implants in pristine bone , fresh extraction sockets and grafted áreas with 1 to 9 years of follow up. Material and methods The sample was 535 implants in 261 patients, 161 women (61.7%) and 100 men (38.3%). The age range was between 30 and 81 years, (X: 50.5) with a mean follow-up of 4 years. Patients with less than 8 mm distance to the inferior alveolar nerve and the maxillary sinus were included. Short implants were inserted in pristine sites, with horizontal and vertical regeneration (before or simultaneously) and immediate implants were also placed. The evaluation of each implant was made through periodical visits, and analysis of clinical parameters and calibrated digital panoramic radiographs was made. Results The survival rate was 97.6% (95% CI: 96.3% -98.9%). 93.5% of the implants were multiple, compared to 6.5% single . 60% were placed in the mandible and 40% in the upper maxilla. The survival rate was 98.8% in the mandible and 95.8% in the maxilla, (p = 0.029). A total of 27 postextraction implants were placed, and 3 were lost, yielding a cumulative survival of 89%. In sites with horizontal regeneration a total of 46 implants (8.6%) were placed and with a total survival in the sample, in addition 43 short implants were placed associated with vertical regeneration procedures (simultaneous or deferred) yielding a survival of 97.7%. The prevalence of smokers in the sample was 23% and with respect to the total of implants represented 22% ( 118 implants) and accumulate 53% of the failures (p <0.001). Of the total of 535 implants, the prevalence of peri-implantitis was 7.7% at the implant level and 14.2% at the patient level. Conclusions The survival of short implants is fully comparable to those of standard length implants in the short and medium term, both in maxilla and mandible. The survival of short implants is lower in patients who smoke. The main cause of implant failure was the presence of PI periimplantitis, being the cause of failure in 9 of the 13 cases (69.2%) being both a statistically significant data (p <0.001). The prevalence of PI was 7.7% at the implant level and 14.2% at the patient level.The association of horizontal or vertical augmentation procedures with 6 mm implants does not affect the survival rate on the sample.We can consider the placement of immediate implants post-extraction as a risk factor for survival. The implants with more than 5 years of follow-up present data of survival, marginal bone loss and prevalence of peri-implantitis fully satisfactory.
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