The Brazilian Amazon had ca. 65.4 million hectares of undesignated public forestlands in 2017. This massive block of forests is not under some category of use or effective supervision by a designated public agency, increasing the risk of continued land grabbing and predatory use. We estimated that ca. 25% of Amazon annual deforestation occurred in these forestlands between 2010-2018, responding for 100 million tons of carbon emissions. Under the current scenario of deforestation growth in the region, the immediate allocation of undesignated forestlands to production, conservation or social use by the government would reduce the availability of unsupervised public land, increase forest protection and, therefore, decrease deforestation and carbon emissions. The careful designation planning and landscape design may contribute to form a mosaic of different categories of forest protection that may optimize the maintaining of ecosystem services in large extensions of forests, mitigating the effect of climate changing and its consequences. Doing so, Brazil will also increase governance of its large share of the Amazon forest.
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