Kidney stones have been observed in children of all ages. Currently, the prevalence of kidney stones in children is growing due to lifestyles modifications, diet change, and protein consumption. Certain causes for stone formation include race, gender, age, diet, associated diseases, genetic factors, urinary system anomalies, urinary tract infections, and underlying metabolic diseases along with geographical variants such as climate, diet, and socioeconomic status. Kidney stones are mainly complications caused by other illnesses such as metabolic disorders. The basis for the majority of conducted studies is that hypercalciuria is one of the most common metabolic disorders in children suffering from kidney stones. This study aims
to examine metabolites causing urinary stones in children. The study is conducted using cross-sectional examination of 85 children with an age range of 1 month to 11 years old, admitted to the nephrology clinic for a period of six month; after being diagnosed with having stones inside their urinary tracts, urinary metabolites were examined from calcium, citrate, uric acid, and oxalate. Patients had a mean age of 32.91 months old, out of whom 42.4 and 56.5% were male and female, respectively. Overall, 24, 14, and 5 cases of hypercalciuria (28.23%), hypocitraturia (16.47%), and cystinuria (5.8%) were observed, while 83 children had hyper excretion of uric acid (97%), with no cases of hyperoxaluria. According to this study and metabolic element assessments in children suffering from urinary stones in this region (Northern Iran), hyperuricosuria is the most effective factor in stone formation compared to hypercalciuria.