and 1 other(s)
Real-time surgical navigation has been increasingly applied in implant placement. The error from the human application is hard to be quantified and eliminated. The purpose of this study is to build an automatic navigation-robotics system for the implant placement and to investigate the planed/placed accuracy and feasibility of this system by placing zygomatic implants in the severe atrophy maxillary phantom. The drilling trajectories are planned through the preoperative planning system. Through a coordinate transformation algorithm, the real-time visualization of the surgical instruments are constantly updated according to the movement of the robot arm and zygomatic implant can be placed with the control of a six degree of freedom robot. Measurements of deviation is to combine the pre/post operation CBCT, and the three-dimensional distances between the entry/apical point of the corresponding planned/placed implants were calculated. Twelve Zygomatic implants were placed in the 6 phantoms, the entry, apical and angular deviations at were 2.34±0.79mm (range from 1.25 to 3.25 mm), 2.57±1.73mm (range from 0.21 to 4.23 mm), and 2.76±1.39 degrees (range from 1.10 to 5.01 degrees), respectively. The automatic robotic system could achieve accept planned-placed accuracy in ZIs placement in the severe atrophy maxillary.
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