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Periosteum comprises a bilayer structure: an outside fibrous layer and an inside cambium layer, respectively. In this study, we hypothesized the double-layered periosteum has reciprocative ability of fibroblastic differentiation and osteoblastic differentiation of the periosteum cells due to their environment. Periosteum derived cells (PDCs) and Bone marrow cells (BMCs) were harvested from mice, so cultivated unitl 4th generation. Each cells were induced by Osteogenic medium or Fibrogenic medium and assessed by ALP staining, Alizarin Red staining and real time RT-PCR. ALP staining showed similar results in both PDCs and BMCs, Alizarin Red staining showed PDCs didn’t make obvious mineralized modules. Gene expression of the examined transcription factors for osteoblastic differentiation was relatively higher in PDCs cultured in the osteogenic condition at the first stage. In the present study, PDCs prominently showed biphasic gene expression patterns for both osteoblastic and fibroblastic differentiation by switching the culture conditions, compared to BMCs.
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