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The main requirements for an effective bone engineering strategy include sufficient number of bone-forming cells, scaffold capable of conducting these cells and providing adequate blood supply, and growth factors able to induce cell differentiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of scaffolds of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) with hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/βTCP) incorporating simvastatin to verify if this association could be promising for future clinic application. After complete dissolution of PLGA in chloroform, sucrose and biphasic ceramic particles (HA (70%) and β-TCP (30%)) were added in a ratio of 1:1 polymer and ceramic. After evaporation of the solvent, sucrose was removed using polyvinyl alcohol. For samples incorporating simvastatin, 5% of medication were diluted in chloroform, to which sucrose and HA/β-TCP were added to PLGA. Samples were sterilized by gamma radiation. Cytotoxicity test (MTT) were conducted to evaluate the biocompatibility. The interpretations from scaffolds without simvastatin trailed averages similar to the positive control (100%) during days 1 and 3 of cell growth, showing no statistical difference (p = 0.3849 and p = 0.0882, respectively). Despite the statistical difference between control and scaffolds without simvastatin at day-7 (p = 0.0275), samples with no incorporation of simvastatin were not toxic to cells. Test readings for scaffolds with simvastatin were lower since the first day of experiment when compared to positive control, and this difference became even more evident on third and seventh days of experiment, where samples led to 55% and 20% of cell growth, respectively. The results were confirmed by statistical analysis. Microscopic images revealed the presence of macro and micropores in the polymer structure, where particles of HA/βTCP were well inserted and dispersed. Although scaffolds of PLGA+HA/βTCP with simvastatin presented good structural properties as verified on micrographs, the utilized concentration of simvastatin affected the biocompatibility.
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