Background: Despite the advances in additive and subtractive implant surface modifications, there is a need and scope for novel biomaterials enabling early osseointegration. A dual-optimization approach synergizing osteoinductive and osteoconductive chemicals has been applied to develop a novel bio-material. Aim: To compare osseointegration in rabbit between osteogenic nanofibrous-coated (ONFC) dental implants and uncoated titanium fixtures. Materials and Method: Individual bio-active ingredients were dissolved in trifluoroethanol to obtain Polycaprolactone-gelatin scaffold. This was electro-spun around the surface of a titanium screw to obtain an osteogenic nanofibrous coating which was characterized by thermal, physical, x-ray diffraction and biologic analyses. A pilot study involving placement of ONFC-implants and uncoated titanium fixtures in the tibia of a single, skeletally mature male New Zealand white rabbit was conducted. Observations were recorded at the end of six weeks. A further detailed study was conducted on seven rabbits to validate these results at the end of twelve weeks. Results and Conclusion: Radiological (x-ray and micro CT scan), histo-morphological and ultrastructural analyses of the interfacial tissues suggested that ONFC-implants showed enhanced osseointegration.
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