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Zirconia is a biocompatible material and has long been used as a graft material. Nevertheless, the research on surface treatment of the zirconia was insufficient. The aim of this study was to investigate effect of zirconia on osseointegration and physical properties by surface treatments. The prepared zirconia disks were treated with hydrofluoric acid solution and photo-assisted etching under various condition. The surface was analyzed by SEM. The osteogenic effect of MC3T3-E1 cells was assessed via cell counting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Various roughnesses were obtained according to the surface treatment method. The surface roughness increased in the group treated with hydrofluoric acid solution, but the aspect of roughness increased in nano units. In the method using photo-assisted etching, the surface roughness increased in micro units. Cell reaction showed better results in the photo-assisted etching group than in the hydrofluoric acid-treated group(P<0.05). As a result, the photo-assisted etching method is more effective than the simple hydrofluoric acid solution treatment for zirconia treatment for osseointegration.
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