Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) leverage ion injection from an electrolyte to modulate the bulk conductivity of an organic semiconductor channel. The coupling between ionic and electronic charges within the entire volume of the channel endows OECTs with high transconductance compared with that of field-effect transistors, but also limits their response time. The synthetic tunability, facile deposition and biocompatibility of organic materials make OECTs particularly suitable for applications in biological interfacing, printed logic circuitry and neuromorphic devices. I will discuss the physics and the mechanism of operation of OECTs, focusing on their identifying characteristics. I will then review some of the most sucessful materials that are currently being used in OECTs and survey the form factors, fabrication technologies and applications such as bioelectronics, circuits and memory devices. Finally, I will take a critical look at the future of OECT research and development.
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