and 3 other(s)
BACKGROUND The evolution of implantology, associated with socioeconomic reasons, has led to an increase in the number of implants placed in the last three decades. This fact, associated to the longer in vivo maintenance, has favoured the incidence of peri-implantitis. Several publications have reported an high-rate of peri-implantitis after 10 years, with values around 20%. However, the etiology of this pathology and its mechanisms of action are still not fully understood. AIM Taking these data into consideration, this study aimed to update the molecular information in peri-implantitis, through identification and clarification of the most important molecular mechanisms in the establishment and progression of the disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS A literature review of existing peri-implantitis proteome studies was performed, using Medline® database and the keywords “peri-implantitis”, “biomarkers”, “proteome” and “bone diseases”, combined with the boolean operator “AND”. The information collected (identification of the protein; source of the sample; up-/downregulation compared to normal samples; sample donor data (age, gender and social habits); methods of sampling and analysis; type of study and whether the protein had been proposed as a biomarker) was manually annotated in SalivaTecDB database (http://salivatec.viseu.ucp.pt/salivatec-db). Subsequently, the functional characterization of the OralOma of peri-implantitis was carried out in the light of existing knowledge regarding healthy individuals and with periodontitis, using bioinformatic strategies. The analysis features from PANTHER (http://www.pantherdb.org/) was used to automatically detect statistically enriched molecular functions or biological processes. RESULTATS This research allowed to increase from 38 to 96 the number of proteins in the SalivaTecDB database for this pathology. Most of the catalogued proteins presented quantification data. However, there is no homogeneity regarding the units used and the methods of collection and analyses. Functional analyses allowed us to elucidate some of the common molecular mechanisms between peri-implantitis and periodontitis. Increased concentrations of IL-1beta, MPO and TNF-alpha and the decrease in IL-10 may reflect the early stages of the peri-implant pathology in which cell recruitment is stimulated. The increase of MMP-8 reflects the onset of peri-implant tissue destruction and, finally, increased RANK, RANKL and decreased OPG are indicators of osteoclastogenesis, an essential process for the establishment of the disease. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS This work has demonstrated that, although other studies suggest OPG as an option to curb bone resorption this would be a short-term solution, since the intervention would occur at the end of the process and, as so, not reversing the disease. The intervention must be done at the beginning of the process, before the production of inflammatory mediators. As such, it is proposed that the modelling of immune cells should be studied in future works in order to identify the best therapeutic targets.
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