07 - Urban and industrial air pollution effects on a native specie of Atlantic Rainforest

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Abstract

The large Brazilian urban centers are located in the Atlantic Rainforest domain, an important global biome, and urban air pollution contributes to forest decline. In the Ipatinga’s city, Minas Gerais - Brazil, exist a steel mill and a circulating fleet of vehicles responsible for atmospheric pollutants emissions that contribute to the reduction of environmental quality. The objective was to evaluate the urban and industrial air pollution effects of Ipatinga in Joannesia princeps Vell. (Euphorbiaceae), a native Atlantic Rainforest specie. For this, we analyzed the visual foliar damages and the anatomical and micromorphological effects in extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of this species. During 126 days, J. princeps seedlings were exposed in stand systems at Bom Retiro, Cariru, Cidade Nobre and Veneza points in the Ipatinga’s city. The leaf symptomatology was evaluated monthly. For the anatomical analysis, EFNs were collected and processed for analysis in light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. At Bom Retiro and Cariru points, the highest concentrations of NO, NOX, SO2, O3, benzene and naphthalene were recorded. The highest concentrations of hydrocarbon pollutants were recorded in the Cidade Nobre and Veneza points. In plants exposed at the Cariru point, more visual damage was observed. Regarding the anatomical and micromorphological damages in the EFNs, tissue necrosis, wound healing formation and cell hyperplasia, intense superficial damage such as epidermal rupture, fungal colonization, disarrangement and trichome fall were observed. Thus, our data suggest that the urban air pollution of Ipatinga’s city promotes changes in the morphology and micromorphology of native plant species.